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Regulation of TGFβ in the immune system: an emerging role for integrins and dendritic cells

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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>12/2012
<mark>Journal</mark>Immunobiology
Issue number12
Volume217
Number of pages7
Pages (from-to)1259-1265
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date2/07/12
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Regulation of an immune response requires complex crosstalk between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, via both cell-cell contact and secretion of cytokines. An important cytokine with a broad regulatory role in the immune system is transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). TGF-β is produced by and has effects on many different cells of the immune system, and plays fundamental roles in the regulation of immune responses during homeostasis, infection and disease. Although many cells can produce TGFβ, it is always produced as an inactive complex that must be activated to bind to the TGFβ receptor complex and promote downstream signalling. Thus, regulation of TGFβ activation is a crucial step in controlling TGFβ function. This review will discuss how TGFβ controls diverse immune responses and how TGFβ function is regulated, with a focus on recent work highlighting a critical role for the integrin αvβ8 expressed by dendritic cells in activating TGFβ.