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  • Liu et al EI

    Rights statement: This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Environment International. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Environment International, 91, 2016 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.02.020

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Risk assessment and source identification of perfluoroalkyl acids in surface and ground water: spatial distribution around a mega-fluorochemical industrial park, China

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  • Zhaoyang Liu
  • Yonglong Lu
  • Tieyu Wang
  • Pei Wang
  • Qifeng Li
  • Andrew C. Johnson
  • Surianarayanan Sarvajayakesavalu
  • Andrew James Sweetman
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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>05/2016
<mark>Journal</mark>Environment International
Volume91
Number of pages9
Pages (from-to)69-77
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date22/02/16
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) can be released to water bodies during manufacturing and application of PFAA-containing products. In this study, the contamination pattern, attenuation dynamics, sources, pathways, and risk zoning of PFAAs in surface and ground water was examined within a 10 km radius from a mega-fluorochemical industrial park (FIP). Among 12 detected PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated, followed by shorter-chained perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFAA-containing waste was discharged from the FIP, with levels reaching 1.86 mg/L in the nearby rivers flowing to the Bohai sea together with up to 273 μg/L in the local groundwater in the catchment. These levels constitute a human health risks for PFOA and other shorter-chained PFCAs within this location. The concentrations of ∑ PFAAs in surface water strongly correlated with the local groundwater. The dominant pollution pathways of PFAAs included (i) discharge into surface water then to groundwater through seepage, and (ii) atmospheric deposition from the FIP, followed by infiltration to groundwater. As the distance increased from the source, PFAAs levels in groundwater showed a sharp initial decrease followed by a gentle decline. The contamination signal from the FIP site on PFAAs in groundwater existed within a radius of 4 km, and at least 3 km from the polluted Dongzhulong River. The major controlling factor in PFAA attenuation processes was likely to be dilution together with dispersion and adsorption to aquifer solids. The relative abundance of PFOA (C8) declined while those of shorter-chained PFCAs (C4–C6) increased during surface water seepage and further dispersion in groundwater.

Bibliographic note

This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Environment International. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Environment International, 91, 2016 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.02.020