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Seasonal assessment of drinking water sources in Rwanda using GIS, contamination degree (Cd), and metal index (MI)

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  • V. Mukanyandwi
  • A. Kurban
  • E. Hakorimana
  • L. Nahayo
  • G. Habiyaremye
  • A. Gasirabo
  • T. Sindikubwabo
Article number734
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>31/12/2019
<mark>Journal</mark>Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Issue number12
Number of pages13
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date9/11/19
<mark>Original language</mark>English


The quality of drinking water source remains as a major concern in areas of developing and underdeveloped countries worldwide. The treatment and supply of drinking water in Rwanda are carried out by Water and Sanitation Corporation, a state-owned public company. However, it is not able to supply water to all households. Consequently, the non-serviced households depend on natural water sources, like springs, to meet their water requirements. Nevertheless, the water quality in these springs is scarcely known. Therefore, this study assessed and compared metal elements in drinking water sources in the dry and rainy seasons in 2017 using the contamination degree, metal index, and geographic information systems to reveal the spatial distribution of water quality within the considered water sources of springs in Rwanda. The samples were collected monthly from nine water sources of springs and the measured elements are aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. The metal index indicated that during the dry season and rainy season, the sites of Kibungo (1.10 and 1.26) and Kinigi (1.01 and 1.54) have assessed a metal index which is higher than 1. Thus, the water quality of those sites was getting the threshold of warning. The analysis indicated that pollutants are easily transported into water bodies during the rainy season in urban and rural areas to a greater extent than during the dry season .