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Shapes of magnetically controlled electron density structures in the dayside Martian ionosphere

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

<mark>Journal publication date</mark>05/2018
<mark>Journal</mark>Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Issue number5
Number of pages24
Pages (from-to)3919-3942
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date22/03/18
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Nonhorizontal localized electron density structures associated with regions of near‐radial crustal magnetic fields are routinely detected via radar oblique echoes on the dayside of Mars with the ionospheric sounding mode of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) radar onboard Mars Express. Previous studies mostly investigated these structures at a fixed plasma frequency and assumed that the larger apparent altitude of the structures compared to the normal surrounding ionosphere implied that they are bulges. However, the signal is subjected to dispersion when it propagates through the plasma, so interpretations based on the apparent altitude should be treated with caution. We go further by investigating the frequency dependence (i.e., the altitude dependence) of the shape of 48 density structure events, using time series of MARSIS electron density profiles corrected for signal dispersion. Four possible simplest shapes are detected in these time series, which can give oblique echoes: bulges, dips, downhill slopes, and uphill slopes. The altitude differences between the density structures and their edges are, in absolute value, larger at low frequency (high altitude) than at high frequency (low altitude), going from a few tens of kilometers to a few kilometers as frequency increases. Bulges dominate in numbers in most of the frequency range. Finally, the geographical extension of the density structures covers a wide range of crustal magnetic fields orientations, with near‐vertical fields toward their center and near‐horizontal fields toward their edges, as expected. Transport processes are suggested to be a key driver for these density structures.