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Short-Term Immobilization Promotes a Rapid Loss of Motor Evoked Potentials and Strength That Is Not Rescued by rTMS Treatment

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Short-Term Immobilization Promotes a Rapid Loss of Motor Evoked Potentials and Strength That Is Not Rescued by rTMS Treatment. / Gaffney, Christopher; Drinkwater, Amber; Joshi, Shalmali D; O'Hanlon, Brandon; Robinson, Abbie; Sands, Kayle-Anne; Slade, Kate; Braithwaite, J. J.; Nuttall, Helen E.

In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Vol. 15, 640642, 26.04.2021.

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@article{fb14acba15ae4a76aaf7211b2c0b614c,
title = "Short-Term Immobilization Promotes a Rapid Loss of Motor Evoked Potentials and Strength That Is Not Rescued by rTMS Treatment",
abstract = "Short-term limb immobilization results in skeletal muscle decline, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study aimed to determine the neurophysiologic basis of immobilization-induced skeletal muscle decline, and whether repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) could prevent any decline. Twenty-four healthy young males (20 ± 0.5 years) underwent unilateral limb immobilization for 72 h. Subjects were randomized between daily rTMS (n = 12) using six 20 Hz pulse trains of 1.5 s duration with a 60 s inter-train-interval delivered at 90% resting Motor Threshold (rMT), or Sham rTMS (n = 12) throughout immobilization. Maximal grip strength, EMG activity, arm volume, and composition were determined at 0 and 72 h. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were determined daily throughout immobilization to index motor excitability. Immobilization induced a significant reduction in motor excitability across time (−30% at 72 h; p < 0.05). The rTMS intervention increased motor excitability at 0 h (+13%, p < 0.05). Despite daily rTMS treatment, there was still a significant reduction in motor excitability (−33% at 72 h, p < 0.05), loss in EMG activity (−23.5% at 72 h; p <0.05), and a loss of maximal grip strength (−22%, p < 0.001) after immobilization. Interestingly, the increase in biceps (Sham vs. rTMS) (+0.8 vs. +0.1 mm, p < 0.01) and posterior forearm (+0.3 vs. +0.0 mm, p < 0.05) skinfold thickness with immobilization in Sham treatment was not observed following rTMS treatment. Reduced MEPs drive the loss of strength with immobilization. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation cannot prevent this loss of strength but further investigation and optimization of neuroplasticity protocols may have therapeutic benefit.",
keywords = "rTMS, MEPs, immobilization, plasticity, muscle function",
author = "Christopher Gaffney and Amber Drinkwater and Joshi, {Shalmali D} and Brandon O'Hanlon and Abbie Robinson and Kayle-Anne Sands and Kate Slade and Braithwaite, {J. J.} and Nuttall, {Helen E}",
year = "2021",
month = apr,
day = "26",
doi = "10.3389/fnhum.2021.640642",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
journal = "Frontiers in Human Neuroscience",
issn = "1662-5161",
publisher = "Frontiers Media S.A.",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Short-Term Immobilization Promotes a Rapid Loss of Motor Evoked Potentials and Strength That Is Not Rescued by rTMS Treatment

AU - Gaffney, Christopher

AU - Drinkwater, Amber

AU - Joshi, Shalmali D

AU - O'Hanlon, Brandon

AU - Robinson, Abbie

AU - Sands, Kayle-Anne

AU - Slade, Kate

AU - Braithwaite, J. J.

AU - Nuttall, Helen E

PY - 2021/4/26

Y1 - 2021/4/26

N2 - Short-term limb immobilization results in skeletal muscle decline, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study aimed to determine the neurophysiologic basis of immobilization-induced skeletal muscle decline, and whether repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) could prevent any decline. Twenty-four healthy young males (20 ± 0.5 years) underwent unilateral limb immobilization for 72 h. Subjects were randomized between daily rTMS (n = 12) using six 20 Hz pulse trains of 1.5 s duration with a 60 s inter-train-interval delivered at 90% resting Motor Threshold (rMT), or Sham rTMS (n = 12) throughout immobilization. Maximal grip strength, EMG activity, arm volume, and composition were determined at 0 and 72 h. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were determined daily throughout immobilization to index motor excitability. Immobilization induced a significant reduction in motor excitability across time (−30% at 72 h; p < 0.05). The rTMS intervention increased motor excitability at 0 h (+13%, p < 0.05). Despite daily rTMS treatment, there was still a significant reduction in motor excitability (−33% at 72 h, p < 0.05), loss in EMG activity (−23.5% at 72 h; p <0.05), and a loss of maximal grip strength (−22%, p < 0.001) after immobilization. Interestingly, the increase in biceps (Sham vs. rTMS) (+0.8 vs. +0.1 mm, p < 0.01) and posterior forearm (+0.3 vs. +0.0 mm, p < 0.05) skinfold thickness with immobilization in Sham treatment was not observed following rTMS treatment. Reduced MEPs drive the loss of strength with immobilization. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation cannot prevent this loss of strength but further investigation and optimization of neuroplasticity protocols may have therapeutic benefit.

AB - Short-term limb immobilization results in skeletal muscle decline, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study aimed to determine the neurophysiologic basis of immobilization-induced skeletal muscle decline, and whether repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) could prevent any decline. Twenty-four healthy young males (20 ± 0.5 years) underwent unilateral limb immobilization for 72 h. Subjects were randomized between daily rTMS (n = 12) using six 20 Hz pulse trains of 1.5 s duration with a 60 s inter-train-interval delivered at 90% resting Motor Threshold (rMT), or Sham rTMS (n = 12) throughout immobilization. Maximal grip strength, EMG activity, arm volume, and composition were determined at 0 and 72 h. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were determined daily throughout immobilization to index motor excitability. Immobilization induced a significant reduction in motor excitability across time (−30% at 72 h; p < 0.05). The rTMS intervention increased motor excitability at 0 h (+13%, p < 0.05). Despite daily rTMS treatment, there was still a significant reduction in motor excitability (−33% at 72 h, p < 0.05), loss in EMG activity (−23.5% at 72 h; p <0.05), and a loss of maximal grip strength (−22%, p < 0.001) after immobilization. Interestingly, the increase in biceps (Sham vs. rTMS) (+0.8 vs. +0.1 mm, p < 0.01) and posterior forearm (+0.3 vs. +0.0 mm, p < 0.05) skinfold thickness with immobilization in Sham treatment was not observed following rTMS treatment. Reduced MEPs drive the loss of strength with immobilization. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation cannot prevent this loss of strength but further investigation and optimization of neuroplasticity protocols may have therapeutic benefit.

KW - rTMS

KW - MEPs

KW - immobilization

KW - plasticity

KW - muscle function

U2 - 10.3389/fnhum.2021.640642

DO - 10.3389/fnhum.2021.640642

M3 - Journal article

VL - 15

JO - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

JF - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

SN - 1662-5161

M1 - 640642

ER -