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Single-step laser deposition of functionally graded coating by dual 'wire-powder' or 'powder-powder' feeding: a comparative study

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

<mark>Journal publication date</mark>31/07/2007
<mark>Journal</mark>Applied Surface Science
Issue number19
Number of pages6
Pages (from-to)7926-7931
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


The creation of iron-copper (Fe-Cu) alloys has practical application in improving the surface heat conduction and corrosion resistance of, for example, conformal cooling channels in steel moulds, but is difficult to achieve because the elements have got low inter-solubility and are prone to solidification cracking. Previous work by these authors has reported a method to produce a graded iron-nickel-copper coating in a single-step by direct diode laser deposition (DLD) of nickel wire and copper powder as a combined feedstock. This work investigates whether dual powder feeds can be used in that process to afford greater geometric flexibility and compares attributes of the 'nickel wire and copper powder' and 'nickel powder and copper powder' processes for deposition on a H13 tool steel substrate.

In wire-powder deposition, a higher temperature developed in the melt pool causing a clad with a smooth gradient structure. The nickel powder in powder-powder deposition did not impart much heat into the melt pool so the melt pool solidified with sharp composition boundaries due to single metal melting in some parts. In wire-powder experiments, a graded structure was obtained by varying the flow rates of wire and powder. However, a graded structure was not realised in powder-powder experiments by varying either the feed or the directions. Reasons for the differences and flow patterns in the melt pools and their effect on final part properties of parts produced are discussed. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.