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Statistical Modelling of Induced Earthquakes

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

Published

Standard

Statistical Modelling of Induced Earthquakes. / Varty, Zak.
Lancaster University, 2021. 275 p.

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

APA

Varty, Z. (2021). Statistical Modelling of Induced Earthquakes. [Doctoral Thesis, Lancaster University]. Lancaster University. https://doi.org/10.17635/lancaster/thesis/1436

Vancouver

Varty Z. Statistical Modelling of Induced Earthquakes. Lancaster University, 2021. 275 p. doi: 10.17635/lancaster/thesis/1436

Author

Varty, Zak. / Statistical Modelling of Induced Earthquakes. Lancaster University, 2021. 275 p.

Bibtex

@phdthesis{8034dddcd2824db2affd8fcf6b84b461,
title = "Statistical Modelling of Induced Earthquakes",
abstract = "Earthquakes induced by human activities present a unique set of challenges to the statistical modeller. Relative to tectonic earthquakes, the recorded number of induced earthquakes can be very small, while interventions to better record and prevent these earthquakes make the use of stationary models either statistically inefficient or inappropriate. On the other hand, the human activity causing seismicity is often well documented and can be a valuable resource that is not available in the tectonic setting.This thesis focuses on how to model anthropogenic earthquakes while making best use of the limited available data. This research provides three main contributions to statistical seismology, each motivated by the induced earthquakes in the Groningen gas field.Firstly, we consider the link between earthquake locations and gas extraction, using a state-of-the-art, physically-motivated model as our baseline. We investigate model simplifications to ensure parsimony of the baseline model and explore model extensions that assess the statistical evidence for additional physical characteristics that are not currently represented.Secondly, we consider how to include developments to the earthquake detection network when modelling earthquake magnitudes. We develop a method for selecting a time-varying threshold above which the earthquake catalogue may be considered complete. This allows small magnitude events, unused by existing analyses, to contribute to our understanding of the largest events. Finally, we turn our focus to aftershock activity and the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. The use of this model is widespread, but the conventional formulation represents a narrow model class with strong parameter dependence and assumes independent and identically distributed magnitudes. We introduce a reparameterisation and two extensions of the conventional ETAS model, along with efficient inference procedures, which alleviate these issues.",
keywords = "statistics, earthquake, extreme, induced, seismicity, ETAS, epidemic type aftershock sequence, extreme value",
author = "Zak Varty",
year = "2021",
doi = "10.17635/lancaster/thesis/1436",
language = "English",
publisher = "Lancaster University",
school = "Lancaster University",

}

RIS

TY - BOOK

T1 - Statistical Modelling of Induced Earthquakes

AU - Varty, Zak

PY - 2021

Y1 - 2021

N2 - Earthquakes induced by human activities present a unique set of challenges to the statistical modeller. Relative to tectonic earthquakes, the recorded number of induced earthquakes can be very small, while interventions to better record and prevent these earthquakes make the use of stationary models either statistically inefficient or inappropriate. On the other hand, the human activity causing seismicity is often well documented and can be a valuable resource that is not available in the tectonic setting.This thesis focuses on how to model anthropogenic earthquakes while making best use of the limited available data. This research provides three main contributions to statistical seismology, each motivated by the induced earthquakes in the Groningen gas field.Firstly, we consider the link between earthquake locations and gas extraction, using a state-of-the-art, physically-motivated model as our baseline. We investigate model simplifications to ensure parsimony of the baseline model and explore model extensions that assess the statistical evidence for additional physical characteristics that are not currently represented.Secondly, we consider how to include developments to the earthquake detection network when modelling earthquake magnitudes. We develop a method for selecting a time-varying threshold above which the earthquake catalogue may be considered complete. This allows small magnitude events, unused by existing analyses, to contribute to our understanding of the largest events. Finally, we turn our focus to aftershock activity and the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. The use of this model is widespread, but the conventional formulation represents a narrow model class with strong parameter dependence and assumes independent and identically distributed magnitudes. We introduce a reparameterisation and two extensions of the conventional ETAS model, along with efficient inference procedures, which alleviate these issues.

AB - Earthquakes induced by human activities present a unique set of challenges to the statistical modeller. Relative to tectonic earthquakes, the recorded number of induced earthquakes can be very small, while interventions to better record and prevent these earthquakes make the use of stationary models either statistically inefficient or inappropriate. On the other hand, the human activity causing seismicity is often well documented and can be a valuable resource that is not available in the tectonic setting.This thesis focuses on how to model anthropogenic earthquakes while making best use of the limited available data. This research provides three main contributions to statistical seismology, each motivated by the induced earthquakes in the Groningen gas field.Firstly, we consider the link between earthquake locations and gas extraction, using a state-of-the-art, physically-motivated model as our baseline. We investigate model simplifications to ensure parsimony of the baseline model and explore model extensions that assess the statistical evidence for additional physical characteristics that are not currently represented.Secondly, we consider how to include developments to the earthquake detection network when modelling earthquake magnitudes. We develop a method for selecting a time-varying threshold above which the earthquake catalogue may be considered complete. This allows small magnitude events, unused by existing analyses, to contribute to our understanding of the largest events. Finally, we turn our focus to aftershock activity and the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. The use of this model is widespread, but the conventional formulation represents a narrow model class with strong parameter dependence and assumes independent and identically distributed magnitudes. We introduce a reparameterisation and two extensions of the conventional ETAS model, along with efficient inference procedures, which alleviate these issues.

KW - statistics

KW - earthquake

KW - extreme

KW - induced

KW - seismicity

KW - ETAS

KW - epidemic type aftershock sequence

KW - extreme value

U2 - 10.17635/lancaster/thesis/1436

DO - 10.17635/lancaster/thesis/1436

M3 - Doctoral Thesis

PB - Lancaster University

ER -