Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > The development of temperature fields and powde...
View graph of relations

The development of temperature fields and powder flow during laser direct metal deposition wall growth

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

Published

Standard

The development of temperature fields and powder flow during laser direct metal deposition wall growth. / Pinkerton, A. J. ; Li, L. .

In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol. 218, No. 5, 05.2004, p. 531-541.

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

Harvard

Pinkerton, AJ & Li, L 2004, 'The development of temperature fields and powder flow during laser direct metal deposition wall growth', Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, vol. 218, no. 5, pp. 531-541. https://doi.org/10.1243/095440604323052319

APA

Pinkerton, A. J., & Li, L. (2004). The development of temperature fields and powder flow during laser direct metal deposition wall growth. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 218(5), 531-541. https://doi.org/10.1243/095440604323052319

Vancouver

Pinkerton AJ, Li L. The development of temperature fields and powder flow during laser direct metal deposition wall growth. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science. 2004 May;218(5):531-541. https://doi.org/10.1243/095440604323052319

Author

Pinkerton, A. J. ; Li, L. . / The development of temperature fields and powder flow during laser direct metal deposition wall growth. In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science. 2004 ; Vol. 218, No. 5. pp. 531-541.

Bibtex

@article{c3188aab9a614cecb8dd536d6271fb36,
title = "The development of temperature fields and powder flow during laser direct metal deposition wall growth",
abstract = "The additive manufacturing technique of laser direct metal deposition (DMD) has had an impact in rapid prototyping, tooling and small-volume manufacturing applications. Components are built from metallic materials that are deposited by the continuous injection of powder into a moving melt pool, created by a defocused laser beam. The size of the melt pool, the temperature distributions around it and the powder flux are critical in determining process characteristics such as deposition rate. In this paper, the effects that changes in the distance between the laser deposition head and the melt pool have on these factors as a part is built using a coaxial powder feeding system are considered Via a two-part analytical model. A heat flow model considers three-dimensional temperature distributions due to a moving Gaussian heat source in a finite volume and a simple mass-flow model considers changes in powder concentration with distance from the deposition head. The model demonstrates the effect of adjusting the melt pool standoff in different ways on melt pool and powder flow characteristics as a DMD structure is built, and hence allows the effect on build rate to be predicted. Its validity is verified by comparison with a series of 316L stainless steel walls, built using different standoff adjustment methods. The model is found to be able to explain the dimensional characteristics found.",
keywords = "rapid prototyping, laser, deposition, modelling , heat flow , powder flow",
author = "Pinkerton, {A. J.} and L. Li",
year = "2004",
month = may,
doi = "10.1243/095440604323052319",
language = "English",
volume = "218",
pages = "531--541",
journal = "Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science",
issn = "0954-4062",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Ltd",
number = "5",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - The development of temperature fields and powder flow during laser direct metal deposition wall growth

AU - Pinkerton, A. J.

AU - Li, L.

PY - 2004/5

Y1 - 2004/5

N2 - The additive manufacturing technique of laser direct metal deposition (DMD) has had an impact in rapid prototyping, tooling and small-volume manufacturing applications. Components are built from metallic materials that are deposited by the continuous injection of powder into a moving melt pool, created by a defocused laser beam. The size of the melt pool, the temperature distributions around it and the powder flux are critical in determining process characteristics such as deposition rate. In this paper, the effects that changes in the distance between the laser deposition head and the melt pool have on these factors as a part is built using a coaxial powder feeding system are considered Via a two-part analytical model. A heat flow model considers three-dimensional temperature distributions due to a moving Gaussian heat source in a finite volume and a simple mass-flow model considers changes in powder concentration with distance from the deposition head. The model demonstrates the effect of adjusting the melt pool standoff in different ways on melt pool and powder flow characteristics as a DMD structure is built, and hence allows the effect on build rate to be predicted. Its validity is verified by comparison with a series of 316L stainless steel walls, built using different standoff adjustment methods. The model is found to be able to explain the dimensional characteristics found.

AB - The additive manufacturing technique of laser direct metal deposition (DMD) has had an impact in rapid prototyping, tooling and small-volume manufacturing applications. Components are built from metallic materials that are deposited by the continuous injection of powder into a moving melt pool, created by a defocused laser beam. The size of the melt pool, the temperature distributions around it and the powder flux are critical in determining process characteristics such as deposition rate. In this paper, the effects that changes in the distance between the laser deposition head and the melt pool have on these factors as a part is built using a coaxial powder feeding system are considered Via a two-part analytical model. A heat flow model considers three-dimensional temperature distributions due to a moving Gaussian heat source in a finite volume and a simple mass-flow model considers changes in powder concentration with distance from the deposition head. The model demonstrates the effect of adjusting the melt pool standoff in different ways on melt pool and powder flow characteristics as a DMD structure is built, and hence allows the effect on build rate to be predicted. Its validity is verified by comparison with a series of 316L stainless steel walls, built using different standoff adjustment methods. The model is found to be able to explain the dimensional characteristics found.

KW - rapid prototyping

KW - laser

KW - deposition

KW - modelling

KW - heat flow

KW - powder flow

U2 - 10.1243/095440604323052319

DO - 10.1243/095440604323052319

M3 - Journal article

VL - 218

SP - 531

EP - 541

JO - Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science

JF - Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science

SN - 0954-4062

IS - 5

ER -