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Three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous and crystalline phase transitions in phase change materials

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Three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous and crystalline phase transitions in phase change materials. / Grishin, Ilja; Huey, B. D. ; Kolosov, Oleg.

In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol. 5, No. 21, 2013, p. 11441-11445.

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Grishin, Ilja ; Huey, B. D. ; Kolosov, Oleg. / Three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous and crystalline phase transitions in phase change materials. In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2013 ; Vol. 5, No. 21. pp. 11441-11445.

Bibtex

@article{7ec9efce37da4441b5e6921586eddafe,
title = "Three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous and crystalline phase transitions in phase change materials",
abstract = "The nanostructure of micrometer sized domains (bits) in phase change materials (PCM) that undergo switching between amorphous and crystalline phases plays a key role in the performance of optical PCM based memories. Here we explore the dynamics of such phase transitions by mapping PCM nanostructures in three dimensions with nanoscale resolution by combining precision Ar-ion beam cross sectional polishing and nanomechanical Ultrasonic Force Microscopy (UFM) mapping. Surface and bulk phase changes of laser written sub-m to m sized amorphous-to-crystalline (SET) and crystalline-to- amorphous (RESET) bits in chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 PCM are observed with 10-20 nm lateral and 4 nm depth resolution. UFM mapping shows that the Young{\textquoteright}s moduli of crystalline SET bits exceed the moduli of amorphous areas by 11 ± 2%, with crystalline content extending from a few nm to 50 nm in depth depending on the energy of switching pulses. The RESET bits written with 50 ps pulses reveal shallower depth penetration, and show 30-50 nm lateral and few nm vertical “wave” like topography that is anti-correlated with the elastic modulus distribution. Reverse switching of amorphous RESET bits results in full recovery of subsurface nanomechanical properties, accompanied with only partial topography recovery resulting in surface corrugations attributed to quenching. This precision sectioning and nanomechanical mapping approach could be applicable to a wide range of amorphous, nanocrystalline and glass forming materials for 3-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous-crystalline transitions.",
keywords = "Structure-Property Relationships, Characterization Tools, Nanocrystals, Stimuli-Responsive Materials, Data Storage, ultrasonic force microscopy, UFM, SUBSURFACE, 3D",
author = "Ilja Grishin and Huey, {B. D.} and Oleg Kolosov",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1021/am403682m",
language = "English",
volume = "5",
pages = "11441--11445",
journal = "ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces",
issn = "1944-8244",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "21",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous and crystalline phase transitions in phase change materials

AU - Grishin, Ilja

AU - Huey, B. D.

AU - Kolosov, Oleg

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - The nanostructure of micrometer sized domains (bits) in phase change materials (PCM) that undergo switching between amorphous and crystalline phases plays a key role in the performance of optical PCM based memories. Here we explore the dynamics of such phase transitions by mapping PCM nanostructures in three dimensions with nanoscale resolution by combining precision Ar-ion beam cross sectional polishing and nanomechanical Ultrasonic Force Microscopy (UFM) mapping. Surface and bulk phase changes of laser written sub-m to m sized amorphous-to-crystalline (SET) and crystalline-to- amorphous (RESET) bits in chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 PCM are observed with 10-20 nm lateral and 4 nm depth resolution. UFM mapping shows that the Young’s moduli of crystalline SET bits exceed the moduli of amorphous areas by 11 ± 2%, with crystalline content extending from a few nm to 50 nm in depth depending on the energy of switching pulses. The RESET bits written with 50 ps pulses reveal shallower depth penetration, and show 30-50 nm lateral and few nm vertical “wave” like topography that is anti-correlated with the elastic modulus distribution. Reverse switching of amorphous RESET bits results in full recovery of subsurface nanomechanical properties, accompanied with only partial topography recovery resulting in surface corrugations attributed to quenching. This precision sectioning and nanomechanical mapping approach could be applicable to a wide range of amorphous, nanocrystalline and glass forming materials for 3-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous-crystalline transitions.

AB - The nanostructure of micrometer sized domains (bits) in phase change materials (PCM) that undergo switching between amorphous and crystalline phases plays a key role in the performance of optical PCM based memories. Here we explore the dynamics of such phase transitions by mapping PCM nanostructures in three dimensions with nanoscale resolution by combining precision Ar-ion beam cross sectional polishing and nanomechanical Ultrasonic Force Microscopy (UFM) mapping. Surface and bulk phase changes of laser written sub-m to m sized amorphous-to-crystalline (SET) and crystalline-to- amorphous (RESET) bits in chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 PCM are observed with 10-20 nm lateral and 4 nm depth resolution. UFM mapping shows that the Young’s moduli of crystalline SET bits exceed the moduli of amorphous areas by 11 ± 2%, with crystalline content extending from a few nm to 50 nm in depth depending on the energy of switching pulses. The RESET bits written with 50 ps pulses reveal shallower depth penetration, and show 30-50 nm lateral and few nm vertical “wave” like topography that is anti-correlated with the elastic modulus distribution. Reverse switching of amorphous RESET bits results in full recovery of subsurface nanomechanical properties, accompanied with only partial topography recovery resulting in surface corrugations attributed to quenching. This precision sectioning and nanomechanical mapping approach could be applicable to a wide range of amorphous, nanocrystalline and glass forming materials for 3-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous-crystalline transitions.

KW - Structure-Property Relationships

KW - Characterization Tools

KW - Nanocrystals

KW - Stimuli-Responsive Materials

KW - Data Storage

KW - ultrasonic force microscopy

KW - UFM

KW - SUBSURFACE

KW - 3D

U2 - 10.1021/am403682m

DO - 10.1021/am403682m

M3 - Journal article

VL - 5

SP - 11441

EP - 11445

JO - ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces

JF - ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces

SN - 1944-8244

IS - 21

ER -