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Transport of bound quasiparticle states in a two-dimensional boundary superfluid

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Article number6819
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>2/11/2023
<mark>Journal</mark>Nature Communications
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


The B phase of superfluid 3He can be cooled into the pure superfluid regime, where the thermal quasiparticle density is negligible. The bulk superfluid is surrounded by a quantum well at the boundaries of the container, confining a sea of quasiparticles with energies below that of those in the bulk. We can create a non-equilibrium distribution of these states within the quantum well and observe the dynamics of their motion indirectly. Here we show that the induced quasiparticle currents flow diffusively in the two-dimensional system. Combining this with a direct measurement of energy conservation, we conclude that the bulk superfluid 3He is effectively surrounded by an independent two-dimensional superfluid, which is isolated from the bulk superfluid but which readily interacts with mechanical probes. Our work shows that this two-dimensional quantum condensate and the dynamics of the surface bound states are experimentally accessible, opening the possibility of engineering two-dimensional quantum condensates of arbitrary topology.