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Design and estimation in clinical trials with subpopulation selection

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>20/12/2018
<mark>Journal</mark>Statistics in Medicine
Issue number29
Volume37
Number of pages18
Pages (from-to)4335-4352
Publication statusPublished
Early online date7/08/18
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

Population heterogeneity is frequently observed among patients' treatment responses in clinical trials because of various factors such as clinical background, environmental, and genetic factors. Different subpopulations defined by those baseline factors can lead to differences in the benefit or safety profile of a therapeutic intervention. Ignoring heterogeneity between subpopulations can substantially impact on medical practice. One approach to address heterogeneity necessitates designs and analysis of clinical trials with subpopulation selection. Several types of designs have been proposed for different circumstances. In this work, we discuss a class of designs that allow selection of a predefined subgroup. Using the selection based on the maximum test statistics as the worst‐case scenario, we then investigate the precision and accuracy of the maximum likelihood estimator at the end of the study via simulations. We find that the required sample size is chiefly determined by the subgroup prevalence and show in simulations that the maximum likelihood estimator for these designs can be substantially biased.