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Andreev levels in a single-channel conductor.

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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>2001
<mark>Journal</mark>Physical review B
Volume64
Pages (from-to)134206
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

We calculate the subgap density of states of a disordered single-channel normal metal connected to a superconductor at one end (normal-metal�superconductor junction) or at both ends [superconductor�normal-metal�superconductor (SNS) junction]. The probability distribution of the energy of a bound state (Andreev level) is broadened by disorder. In the SNS case the twofold degeneracy of the Andreev levels is removed by disorder leading to a splitting in addition to the broadening. The distribution of the splitting is given precisely by Wigner�s surmise from random-matrix theory. For strong disorder the mean density of states is largely unaffected by the proximity to the superconductor, because of localization, except in a narrow energy region near the Fermi level, where the density of states is suppressed with a log-normal tail.