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Creating 3D objects with integrated electronics via multiphoton fabrication in vitro and in vivo

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

E-pub ahead of print
  • Rebecca Griffin
  • Zhiyi Zhao
  • Zijian Zhang
  • Yaochun Shen
  • Jack Martin
  • Mark Ashton
  • Mathew Haskew
  • Beverley Stewart
  • Olga Efremova
  • Reza Esfahani
  • Damian M. Cummings
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>12/03/2023
<mark>Journal</mark>Advanced Materials Technologies
Publication StatusE-pub ahead of print
Early online date12/03/23
<mark>Original language</mark>English


3D objects with integrated electronics were produced using an additive manufacturing approach relying on multiphoton fabrication (direct laser writing, DLW). Conducting polymer-based structures (with micrometer-millimeter scale features) were printed within exemplar matrices, including an elastomer (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) widely investigated for biomedical applications. The fidelity of the printing process in PDMS was assessed by optical coherence tomography, and the conducting polymer structures were demonstrated to be capable of stimulating mouse brain tissue in vitro. Furthermore, the applicability of the approach to printing structures in vivo was demonstrated in live nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). These results highlight the potential for such additive manufacturing approaches to produce next-generation advanced material technologies, notably integrated electronics for technical and medical applications (e.g., human-computer interfaces).