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Creating 3D objects with integrated electronics via multiphoton fabrication in vitro and in vivo

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • Rebecca Griffin
  • Zhiyi Zhao
  • Zijian Zhang
  • Yaochun Shen
  • Jack Martin
  • Mark Ashton
  • Mathew Haskew
  • Beverley Stewart
  • Olga Efremova
  • Reza Esfahani
  • Damian M. Cummings
Article number2201274
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>9/06/2023
<mark>Journal</mark>Advanced Materials Technologies
Issue number11
Number of pages13
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date12/03/23
<mark>Original language</mark>English


3D objects with integrated electronics are produced using an additive manufacturing approach relying on multiphoton fabrication (direct laser writing, (DLW)). Conducting polymer-based structures (with micrometer-millimeter scale features) are printed within exemplar matrices, including an elastomer (polydimethylsiloxane, (PDMS)) have been widely investigated for biomedical applications. The fidelity of the printing process in PDMS is assessed by optical coherence tomography, and the conducting polymer structures are demonstrated to be capable of stimulating mouse brain tissue in vitro. Furthermore, the applicability of the approach to printing structures in vivo is demonstrated in live nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). These results highlight the potential for such additive manufacturing approaches to produce next-generation advanced material technologies, notably integrated electronics for technical and medical applications (e.g., human-computer interfaces).