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Drug/bioactive eluting chitosan composite foams for osteochondral tissue engineering

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

<mark>Journal publication date</mark>28/02/2023
<mark>Journal</mark>International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Number of pages14
Pages (from-to)561-574
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date5/01/23
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Joint defects associated with a variety of etiologies often extend deep into the subchondral bone leading to functional impairment and joint immobility, and it is a very challenging task to regenerate the bone-cartilage interface offering significant opportunities for biomaterial-based interventions to improve the quality of life of patients. Herein drug-/bioactive-loaded porous tissue scaffolds incorporating nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), chitosan (CS) and either hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) or Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF) are fabricated through freeze drying method as subchondral bone substitute. A combination of spectroscopy and microscopy (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to analyze the structure of the porous biomaterials. The compressive mechanical properties of these scaffolds are biomimetic of cancellous bone tissues and capable of releasing drugs/bioactives (exemplified with triamcinolone acetonide, TA, or transforming growth factor-β1, TGF-β1, respectively) over a period of days. Mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were observed to adhere and proliferate on the tissue scaffolds as confirmed by the cell attachment, live-dead assay and alamarBlue™ assay. Interestingly, RT-qPCR analysis showed that the TA downregulated inflammatory biomarkers and upregulated the bone-specific biomarkers, suggesting such tissue scaffolds have long-term potential for clinical application.