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Endothelial-derived extracellular vesicles induce cerebrovascular dysfunction in inflammation

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

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  • D. Roig-Carles
  • E. Willms
  • R.D. Fontijn
  • S. Martinez-Pacheco
  • I. Mäger
  • H.E. de Vries
  • M. Hirst
  • B. Sharrack
  • D.K. Male
  • C.A. Hawkes
  • I.A. Romero
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Article number1525
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>21/09/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>Pharmaceutics
Issue number9
Volume13
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a key hallmark in the pathology of many neu-roinflammatory disorders. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane-enclosed carriers of molecular cargo that are involved in cell-to-cell communication. Circulating endothelial EVs are increased in the plasma of patients with neurological disorders, and immune cell-derived EVs are known to modulate cerebrovascular functions. However, little is known about whether brain endothelial cell (BEC)-derived EVs themselves contribute to BBB dysfunction. Human cerebral micro-vascular cells (hCMEC/D3) were treated with TNFα and IFNy, and the EVs were isolated and char-acterised. The effect of EVs on BBB transendothelial resistance (TEER) and leukocyte adhesion in hCMEC/D3 cells was measured by electric substrate cell-substrate impedance sensing and the flow-based T-cell adhesion assay. EV-induced molecular changes in recipient hCMEC/D3 cells were an-alysed by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. A stimulation of naïve hCMEC/D3 cells with small EVs (sEVs) reduced the TEER and increased the shear-resistant T-cell adhesion. The levels of microRNA-155, VCAM1 and ICAM1 were increased in sEV-treated hCMEC/D3 cells. Blocking the expression of VCAM1, but not of ICAM1, prevented sEV-mediated T-cell adhesion to brain endothelia. These results suggest that sEVs derived from inflamed BECs promote cerebrovascular dysfunction. These findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms involving neuroinflammatory disorders.