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How marine currents and environment shape plankton genomic differentiation: a mosaic view from Tara Oceans metagenomic data

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

<mark>Journal publication date</mark>30/04/2021
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Plankton seascape genomics show different trends from large-scale weak differentiation to micro-scale structures. Prior studies underlined the influence of environment and seascape on a few single species differentiation and adaptation. However, these works generally focused on few single species, sparse molecular markers, or local scales. Here, we investigate the genomic differentiation of plankton at macro-scale in a holistic approach using Tara Oceans metagenomic data together with a reference-free computational method to reconstruct the FST-based genomic differentiation of 113 marine planktonic species using metavariant species (MVS). These MVSs, modelling the species only by their polymorphism, include a wide range of taxonomic groups comprising notably 46 Maxillopoda/Copepoda, 24 Bacteria, 5 Dinoflagellates, 4 Haptophytes, 3 Cnidarians, 3 Mamiellales, 2 Ciliates, 1 Collodaria, 1 Echinoidea, 1 Pelagomonadaceae, 1 Cryptophyta and 1 Virus. The analyses showed that differentiation between populations was significantly lower within basins and higher in bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes compared to zooplantkon. By partitioning the variance of pairwise-FST matrices, we found that the main drivers of genomic differentiation were Lagrangian travel time, salinity and temperature. Furthermore, we classified MVSs into parameter-driven groups and showed that taxonomy poorly determines which environmental factor drives genomic differentiation. This holistic approach of plankton genomic differentiation for large geographic scales, a wide range of taxa and different oceanic basins, offers a systematic framework to analyse population genomics of non-model and undocumented marine organisms.