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Open Circuit Voltages for PERC Local Back Surface Fields Directly Resolved at the Nanoscale: 46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2019

Research output: Contribution to conference - Without ISBN/ISSN Conference paperpeer-review

  • A. Longacre
  • M. Martin
  • O.V. Kolosov
  • E. Schneller
  • A.J. Curran
  • M. Wang
  • J. Dai
  • L.S. Bruckman
  • J.-N. Jaubert
  • K.O. Davis
  • J.L. Braid
  • R.H. French
  • B.D. Huey
Publication date30/06/2019
Number of pages5
<mark>Original language</mark>English


The open circuit voltage is a critical indicator of solar cell performance and degradation. At the often-critical nanoscale, however, V OC detection is much more challenging, due to practical limitations on spatial resolution, voltage resolution, and/or measurement times. Accordingly, a new Atomic Force Microscopy based approach is described for directly imaging the local V OC. This is demonstrated with cross-sectioned monocrystalline PERC cells around the entire circumference of a poly-Si via. The V OC maps reveal 1-3 μm of uniform Al in-diffusion throughout this local Back Surface Field. Such high spatial resolution methods for photovoltaic performance mapping are especially promising for identifying markers of degradation in silicon and other solar cell technologies.

Bibliographic note

Conference code: 157434 Export Date: 26 March 2020 CODEN: CRCND Funding details: Solar Energy Technologies Office, SETO, DE-EE-0008172 Funding details: U.S. Department of Energy, USDOE Funding details: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, EERE Funding text 1: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) under Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) Agreement Number DE-EE-0008172. The DuPont Silicon Valley Technology Center is recognized for fabricating the investigated monocrystalline PERC cells. References: Tennyson, E.M., Garrett, J.L., Frantz, J.A., Myers, J.D., Bekele, R.Y., Sanghera, J.S., Munday, J.N., Leite, M.S., Nanoimaging of open -circuit voltage in photovoltaic devices (2015) Advanced Energy Materials, 5 (23), p. 1501142; Glatzel, T., Fuertes Marrón, D., Schedel-Niedrig, T., Sadewasser, S., Lux-Steiner, M.C., Cugase2 solar cell cross section studied by kelvin probe force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum (2002) Applied Physics Letters, 81 (11); Kutes, Y., Aguirre, B.A., Bosse, J.L., Cruz-Campa, J.L., Zubia, D., Huey, B.D., Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution (2016) Progress in Photovoltaics, 24 (3), pp. 315-325; Atamanuk, K., Luria, J., Huey, B.D., Direct afm-based nanoscale mapping and tomography of open-circuit voltages for photovoltaics (2018) Beilstein J. Nanotechnol., 9, pp. 1802-1808; Kutes, Y., Zhou, Y., Bosse, J.L., Steffes, J., Padture, N.P., Huey, B.D., Mapping the photoresponse of ch3nh3pbi3 hybrid perovskite thin films at the nanoscale (2016) NanoLetters, 16 (6), pp. 3434-3441; French, R.H., Murray, M.P., Lin, W., Shell, K.A., Brown, S.A., Schuetz, M.A., Davis, R.J., Solar radiation durability of materials components and systems for low concentration photovoltaic systems (2011) Energytech, , IEEE, Cleveland, 2011; Ahn, N., Kwak, K., Jang, M., Yoon, H., Lee, B., Lee, J.-K., Pikhitsa, P., Choi, M., Trapped charge-driven degradation of perovskite solar cells (2016) Nature Communications, 7; Kraft, A., Labusch, L., Ensslen, T., Dürr, I., Bartsch, J., Glatthaar, M., Glunz, S., Reinecke, H., Investigation of acetic acid corrosion impact on printed solar cell contacts (2015) IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 5 (3), pp. 736-743; Badiee, A., Ashcroft, I.A., Wildman, R.D., The thermomechanical degradation of ethylene vinyl acetate used as a solar panel adhesive and encapsulant (2016) Science Direct, 68, pp. 212-218; Pern, F.J., Czanderna, A.W., Characterization of ethylene vinyl acetate (eva) encapsulant: Effects of thermal processing and weathering degradation on its discoloration (1992) Science Direct, 25 (1), pp. 3-23; Luria, J., Kutes, Y., Moore, A., Zhang, L., Stach, E., Huey, B., Charge transport in cdte solar cells revealed by conductive tomographic atomic force microscopy (2016) Nature Energy, 1; Leite, M., Abasin, M., Lezec, H., Gianfrancesco, A., Talin, A., Zhitenev, N., Nanoscale imaging of photocurrent and efficiency in cdte solar cells (2014) ACS Nano, 8 (11), pp. 11883-11890; Sadewasser, S., Abou-Ras, D., Azulay, D., Baier, R., Balberg, I., Cahen, D., Cohen, S., Unold, T., Nanometer-scale electronic and microstructural properties of grain boundaries in cu(in, ga)se2 (2011) Thin Solid Films, 519 (21), pp. 7341-7346; Visoly-Fisher, I., Cohen, S., Gartsman, K., Ruzin, A., Cahen, D., Understanding the beneficial role of grain boundaries inpolycrystalline solar cells from single-grain-boundary scanningprobe microscopy (2006) Advanced Functional Materials, 16 (5), pp. 649-660; Li, J., Chawla, V., Clemens, B., Investigating the role of grain boundaries in czts and cztsse thin film solar cells with scanning probe microscopy (2012) Advanced Materials, 24 (6), pp. 720-723; Galloway, S., Edwards, P., Durose, K., Characterisation of thin film cds/cdte solar cells using electron and optical beam induced current (1999) Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 57 (1), pp. 61-74