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Pathology of peste des petits ruminants virus infection in small ruminants and concurrent infections

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Abstract

Peste des petits ruminant (PPR) is a systemic viral disease of goats and sheep characterized by gastrointestinal and respiratory system lesions with high rate of mortality. Rhinitis, conjunctivitis, serous-mucopurulent naso-ocular discharge, pneumonia, coughing, dispnea, erosive-ulcerative oral lesions, and diarrhea are the most prominent clinicopathological features of the disease. Histopathologically, pseudomembraneous stomatitis, necrotic tonsillitis, fibrinohemorrhagic enteritis, and proliferative interstitial pneoumonia are seen. Syncytial cells and cytoplasmic and/or nuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies are considered as pathognomonic. Like the other morbilli viruses, PPR virus can also cause lesions in the kidney, brain, and abomasum. The PPRV tropism can be explained by the mechanism in which PPRV binds to receptors on the cell surface. The PPR in small ruminants often shows coassociation with secondary viral, bacterial, and parasitary infections.