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Saponin-adjuvanted vaccine protects chickens against velogenic Newcastle disease virus

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  • Wahid H El-Dabae
  • Hussein Aly Hussein
  • Mohammed A Rohaim
  • Munir M El-Safty
  • Nagwa S Ata
  • Ismail M Reda
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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>1/09/2018
<mark>Journal</mark>Archives of Virology
Issue number9
Volume163
Number of pages10
Pages (from-to)2423-2432
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date2/07/18
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Despite extensive vaccination campaigns, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) remains endemic in many countries worldwide, and factors that contribute to this failure include mismatched vaccines, partial immunization, and poor husbandry practices. In order to overcome the problem of genetic divergence between circulating field strains and vaccine strains, we saponin-adjuvanted an Egyptian field strain and assessed its safety and immunogenicity in chickens. Immunization of chickens with the vaccine followed by challenge with a velogenic reference strain revealed the potential of the saponin-adjuvanted vaccine to induce a strong immune response that resulted in complete protection of chickens. Importantly, in vaccinated chickens, virus shedding was abolished, providing an added advantage over the currently available commercial live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines, which are unable to prevent shedding. A histopathological investigation demonstrated that the vaccinated chickens had less-severe lesions than challenged unvaccinated and mock-vaccinated chickens. We propose using this formulation as an alternative and improved NDV vaccine platform that can be exploited to control disease not only in Egypt but also in other disease-endemic countries.