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Single-electron current sources: toward a refined definition of the ampere

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Single-electron current sources : toward a refined definition of the ampere. / Pekola, Jukka P.; Saira, O. -P.; Maisi, Ville F.; Kemppinen, A.; Möttönen , Mikko ; Pashkin, Yuri; Averin, D. V.

In: Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 85, No. 4, 02.10.2013, p. 1421-1472.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Harvard

Pekola, JP, Saira, O-P, Maisi, VF, Kemppinen, A, Möttönen , M, Pashkin, Y & Averin, DV 2013, 'Single-electron current sources: toward a refined definition of the ampere', Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 1421-1472. https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.85.1421

APA

Pekola, J. P., Saira, O. -P., Maisi, V. F., Kemppinen, A., Möttönen , M., Pashkin, Y., & Averin, D. V. (2013). Single-electron current sources: toward a refined definition of the ampere. Reviews of Modern Physics, 85(4), 1421-1472. https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.85.1421

Vancouver

Pekola JP, Saira O-P, Maisi VF, Kemppinen A, Möttönen M, Pashkin Y et al. Single-electron current sources: toward a refined definition of the ampere. Reviews of Modern Physics. 2013 Oct 2;85(4):1421-1472. https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.85.1421

Author

Pekola, Jukka P. ; Saira, O. -P. ; Maisi, Ville F. ; Kemppinen, A. ; Möttönen , Mikko ; Pashkin, Yuri ; Averin, D. V. / Single-electron current sources : toward a refined definition of the ampere. In: Reviews of Modern Physics. 2013 ; Vol. 85, No. 4. pp. 1421-1472.

Bibtex

@article{a96e8db066404edf8893d91ecf6e4b21,
title = "Single-electron current sources: toward a refined definition of the ampere",
abstract = "The control electrons at the level of the elementary charge e was demonstrated experimentally already in the 1980s. Ever since, the production of an electrical current ef, or its integer multiple, at a drive frequency f has been in a focus of research for metrological purposes.This review discusses the generic physical phenomena and technical constraints that influence single-electron charge transport and presents a broad variety of proposed realizations. Some of them have already proven experimentally to nearly fulfill the demanding needs, in terms of transfer errors and transfer rate, of quantum metrology of electrical quantities, whereas some others are currently {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}just{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} wild ideas, still oftenpotentially competitive if technical constraints can be lifted. The important issues of readout of singleelectron events and potential error correction schemes based on them are also discussed. Finally, an account is given of the status of single-electron current sources in the bigger framework of electricquantum standards and of the future international SI system of units, and applications and uses of single-electron devices outside the metrological context are briefly discussed.",
author = "Pekola, {Jukka P.} and Saira, {O. -P.} and Maisi, {Ville F.} and A. Kemppinen and Mikko M{\"o}tt{\"o}nen and Yuri Pashkin and Averin, {D. V.}",
note = "{\textcopyright} 2013 American Physical Society",
year = "2013",
month = oct,
day = "2",
doi = "10.1103/RevModPhys.85.1421",
language = "English",
volume = "85",
pages = "1421--1472",
journal = "Reviews of Modern Physics",
issn = "0034-6861",
publisher = "American Physical Society",
number = "4",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Single-electron current sources

T2 - toward a refined definition of the ampere

AU - Pekola, Jukka P.

AU - Saira, O. -P.

AU - Maisi, Ville F.

AU - Kemppinen, A.

AU - Möttönen , Mikko

AU - Pashkin, Yuri

AU - Averin, D. V.

N1 - © 2013 American Physical Society

PY - 2013/10/2

Y1 - 2013/10/2

N2 - The control electrons at the level of the elementary charge e was demonstrated experimentally already in the 1980s. Ever since, the production of an electrical current ef, or its integer multiple, at a drive frequency f has been in a focus of research for metrological purposes.This review discusses the generic physical phenomena and technical constraints that influence single-electron charge transport and presents a broad variety of proposed realizations. Some of them have already proven experimentally to nearly fulfill the demanding needs, in terms of transfer errors and transfer rate, of quantum metrology of electrical quantities, whereas some others are currently ‘‘just’’ wild ideas, still oftenpotentially competitive if technical constraints can be lifted. The important issues of readout of singleelectron events and potential error correction schemes based on them are also discussed. Finally, an account is given of the status of single-electron current sources in the bigger framework of electricquantum standards and of the future international SI system of units, and applications and uses of single-electron devices outside the metrological context are briefly discussed.

AB - The control electrons at the level of the elementary charge e was demonstrated experimentally already in the 1980s. Ever since, the production of an electrical current ef, or its integer multiple, at a drive frequency f has been in a focus of research for metrological purposes.This review discusses the generic physical phenomena and technical constraints that influence single-electron charge transport and presents a broad variety of proposed realizations. Some of them have already proven experimentally to nearly fulfill the demanding needs, in terms of transfer errors and transfer rate, of quantum metrology of electrical quantities, whereas some others are currently ‘‘just’’ wild ideas, still oftenpotentially competitive if technical constraints can be lifted. The important issues of readout of singleelectron events and potential error correction schemes based on them are also discussed. Finally, an account is given of the status of single-electron current sources in the bigger framework of electricquantum standards and of the future international SI system of units, and applications and uses of single-electron devices outside the metrological context are briefly discussed.

U2 - 10.1103/RevModPhys.85.1421

DO - 10.1103/RevModPhys.85.1421

M3 - Journal article

VL - 85

SP - 1421

EP - 1472

JO - Reviews of Modern Physics

JF - Reviews of Modern Physics

SN - 0034-6861

IS - 4

ER -