Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Surgical stress

Electronic data

  • MURALS paper v15.0_CG_Submit_AAM

    Accepted author manuscript, 1.66 MB, Word document

    Available under license: CC BY: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

View graph of relations

Surgical stress: the muscle and cognitive demands of robotic and laparoscopic surgery

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

<mark>Journal publication date</mark>30/03/2023
<mark>Journal</mark>Annals of Surgery - Open
Publication StatusAccepted/In press
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Introduction: Surgeons are among the most at-risk professionals for work-related musculoskeletal decline and experience high mental demands. This study examined the electromyographic (EMG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) activities of surgeons during surgery.

Methods: Surgeons who performed live laparoscopic (LS) and robotic (RS) surgeries underwent EMG and EEG measurements. Wireless EMG was used to measure muscle activation in four muscle groups bilaterally (biceps brachii, deltoid, upper trapezius, and latissimus dorsi), and an 8-channel wireless EEG device was used to measure cognitive demand. EMG and EEG recordings were completed simultaneously during (i) noncritical bowel dissection, (ii) critical vessel dissection, and (iii) dissection after vessel control. Robust ANOVA was used to compare the %MVCRMS and alpha power between LS and RS.

Results: Thirteen male surgeons performed 26 laparoscopic surgeries (LS) and 28 robotic surgeries (RS). Muscle activation was significantly higher in the right deltoid (p = 0.006), upper trapezius (left, p = 0.041; right, p = 0.032), and latissimus dorsi (left, p = 0.003; right, p = 0.014) muscles in the LS group. There was greater muscle activation in the right biceps than in the left biceps in both surgical modalities (both p = 0.0001). There was a significant effect of the time of surgery on the EEG activity (p
Conclusion: These data suggest greater muscle demands in laparoscopic surgery, but greater cognitive demands in robotic surgery.